Founded in the 5th century BC, Nalanda was one of the world’s great universities and an important Buddhist centre until it was sacked by the Afghans in the 12th century. When the Chinese scholar and traveller Xuanzang was here in the early 7th century AD, there were 10, 000 monks and students in residence.

The brick-built remains are extensive and include the Great Stupa, with steps, terraces and a few intact votive stupas around it, and the monk’s cells. There is also an interesting archaeological museum.